Video in Qualitative Research (Introducing Qualitative Methods series)

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These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data.

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With a discussion on potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. Example using methodological triangulation: Sewdas, R. BMC Public Health, This study is based on a combination of semi-structured telephone interviews and focus groups. Interviews Interviews are useful to explore experiences, views, opinions, or beliefs on specific matters. Often the researcher develops a topic list before the start of the interview, which can be used in a flexible manner.


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As the interview is a product of interaction between the researcher and the interviewee, the setting and skills of the researcher are of importance e. Furthermore, it is important to think about the type of transcription of audio tapes.

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Read more: Britten, N. BMJ, , This paper provides an outline of qualitative interview techniques and their application in medical settings. With a practical guidance for conducting interviews. Green, J. Third Edition. London: Sage Publications. See chapter 4 on in-depth interviews.

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Gubrium, J. This handbook offers information on different forms of interviewing, interviewing distinctive respondents e. The Complexity of the Craft. This second version of the handbook also offers information on the logistics of interviewing, the self and other in the interview and ethics of the interview. Academic Emergency Medicine, Gives an outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies.

Table 2 gives examples of qualitative questions suitable for a topic list Dutch reference: Evers, J. Den Haag: Boom Lemma uitgevers. Examples: Bakker, M. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration, 16 , Bakker, M. BMC neurology, 16 1 , Ockhuijsen, H. Focus group discussions Focus group discussions are useful to examine how social knowledge is produced. The researcher stimulates discussion in order to examine how knowledge and ideas develop and operate in a given group. Most of the times, a facilitator guides a discussion about a particular topic in a group of usually people.

Some sensitive issues might be more easy discussed within a group, although other personal information might be withheld, for instance when persons are acquainted with each other or because of hierarchical relations within the group. The role of the facilitator is to create an open atmosphere, involve participants in the discussion and manage this discussion.


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The organization of a focus group requires careful attention. The authors selected verbatim quotations from their transcripts to illustrate the themes to the reader, adding depth to the final manuscript: … humility to the task and not having any prestige but doing what's best for the patient.

No matter if you ask a nurse for advice or help… I think that's very important Criticisms of this study may include the predominance of just one data collection method and, as acknowledged by the authors, that the vast majority of focus group participants were female, which is a potential source of bias.

However, this study does present data that would be impossible to generate using quantitative methods, and represents a significant contribution to defining some of the qualities of excellence in anaesthesia, including an exploration of the role of humility, which had not been identified in previous studies Although individual interviews lack the ability to give insights into social interaction that observation or focus groups provide, they can offer greater depth and anonymity can be guaranteed making them ideal for the discussion of sensitive or embarrassing topics.

Participants involved in drug errors were recruited shortly after the error had occurred, and interviewed to establish the reasons for the error, why it was or was not reported, and attitudes to drug errors and reporting in general. Purposive sampling, in which the researcher strategically selects the sample population to target the research questions, was used in this study to capture information from a wide variety of error types.

In this study, individual interviews were an appropriate methodology, given the highly sensitive nature of drug errors in healthcare Umm, because they take it for granted that you wouldn't make a mistake I suppose The authors of this study acknowledged the possibility that the professional role of the researcher, a critical care pharmacist, may have influenced the responses given by the interviewees.

Whether this is the case remains unknown, but an important point is raised here: the potential for bias must be recognised and mitigated, if possible, and transparency maintained, so that the study can be interpreted in the appropriate context. Observational research involves the systematic examination of settings and events, including the dialogue and interactions of participants. Observation aims to mitigate one of the primary limitations of interview data; that what people say and what people do may be different. A key facet of this study involved exploring the development of expert practice in regional anaesthesia Participants consented to being observed, and were periodically updated as to the progress of the study Operating lists were sampled purposively, to examine a broad range of surgical and anaesthetic practice, working times and levels of expertise.

Detailed field notes were taken and the transcripts of observations were reviewed by the research team to identify and refine common themes that provided explanations for the process of the development of expertise. Therefore, rather than testing an hypothesis, the results emerged from the data inductively through repeated examination.

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Operating department practitioner 1: We will have to look a little bit lower in your back, little sharp scratch and sting, the space in your back is proving a little elusive. Anaesthetist 3 takes the needle out again, reinserts it, but cannot feed the inner needle.

In this case, a researcher conducted the observations under the guise of a visiting medical student. Given the subject matter of the study, this measure, approved by the local research ethics committee, was important in the avoidance of bias. Healthcare practitioners appeared only to engage reliably with hand washing when their hands were visibly contaminated with body fluids, and with wearing gloves only when they were likely to come into contact with body fluids.

Observational research is open to a number of criticisms, most significantly that the presence of an observer may affect the behaviour of the observed. Researchers need to be aware of this phenomenon, and take measures to account for it. This use of the integrated observer, typically in combination with a range of secondary research methods such as interviews, is typical of ethnographic research, which shares theoretical origins with anthropology and is designed to study social groups such as operating theatre staff and settings.

It is notable, however, that ethnographic study often yields data that suggest that the participants start to behave as if the observer is absent Covert observation presents other challenges: if the true role of the observer is not known, they may be asked to participate in tasks which restrict their ability to undertake their observation. These were anonymised by the students, and analysed by the research team using a modified Grounded Theory approach. Data collection and analysis are alternated repeatedly, with each analysis informing the subsequent data collection.

Participants are purposively sampled to interrogate emerging theories, and as theories are generated, they are compared with multiple data sources, including existing literature Grounded theory therefore combines both inductive and deductive approaches. But when the time came to begin the procedure, the case became complicated… Yet even though the attending surgeon was clearly getting agitated, the senior resident and attending anaesthesiologist never once lost composure As medical students participating in a teaching clerkship, it is probable that they were particularly focused on the exemplary behaviours of relevance to themselves, such as excellence in teaching.

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Discourse analysis describes a group of methods used in the interpretation of language, either in verbal or text form It may focus on different aspects of the use of language, from broad emerging themes to linguistic nuances such as intonation and sentence structure. Multiple different discourse analytic techniques exist, each deriving from a particular theoretical perspective, and can be selected to address different research questions.

The analysis of critical incidents may help clinicians learn from past mistakes. Analysis is often on a large, almost epidemiological, scale However, there is much to be learnt from the detailed exploration of specific topics and the analysis of specific risks 65 - In this study, the archive of text was initially searched for terms relevant to neuromuscular blocking drugs.

phosfato.qa.digitalhub.com.br/161.php Identified incidents were then categorised by severity of harm, stage of drug administration and location. In addition, data were analysed for emerging themes related to the cause or outcome of the incident, using a structured iterative process. I asked nurse staff name to collect from fridge in theatre 11, which is our nearest source.

The fridge was locked, so considerable delay… Therefore, this database had questionable value as a quantitative data source. Additionally, despite the anonymous nature of reporting systems, incident reporters may have attempted to defend their actions in the way they wrote their entries, strongly shaping the data.

Although the examples given above represent four of the most commonly used qualitative research methods in anaesthesia, there are myriad other techniques for undertaking qualitative research that may be applied in the anaesthetic setting. One area of current potential in the era of inexpensive and portable digital devices are elicitation interviews, in which media such as photographs and videos, involving or produced by the participant, are used as the basis of an interview about the topic under investigation.

These media may stimulate the participant to recall and discuss the topic in greater depth than might be expected under normal interview conditions. Although innovative, these methods are logistically challenging and present the additional ethical risks of introducing recording devices to the clinical environment.

Qualitative Analysis: Coding and Categorizing Data by Philip Adu, Ph.D.

However, to address accusations that qualitative data are anecdotal and impressionistic 27 , a number of authors and organisations have developed checklists analogous to the consolidated standards of reporting trials statement 72 to promote comprehensive reporting of qualitative research.